Random Acts of Architecture

Tales of an architect trying to bring order to the chaos that is modern information technology.

A Clash of Development Cultures

Software developers often consider themselves perfectly rational. After all, their jobs consist of programming deterministic, rational machines (computers). However, anyone who has worked with developers realises this is completely untrue. In particular, leaders that direct or influence different groups of developers need to understand what motivates them, especially the more vocal and influential developers and technical leads.

There are two types of influential developers. The first are the “craftsmen” (or the gender non-specific “craftspeople”). Craftsmen are motivated by the respect of their peers and want to be known as “good” developers. Craftsmen tend to:

  • Want to work with cutting edge tools, such as the latest version of an IDE or library, and techniques, such as agile development methodologies.
  • Think “good” code not only satisfies the requirements but is clear, maintainable and is an example to others. They are more likely to refactor code, follow (or create) coding  style guidelines and create automated tests, particularly when they have advance warning their code is going to be reviewed.
  • Thoroughly research and experiment with different ways of solving a problem. They are often critical of designs or direction from others, particularly those removed form the code.
  • Prefer a more egalitarian, flatter management and team structure. They are happy to work in a group of peers, each with their own area of responsibility.
  • Code in their spare time, discuss technical issues over lunch and read or write technical blogs. They hold examples of collaboration, such as open source software, in high regard. They tend to look past certifications and degrees to focus on what was studied or produced.
  • Hold technical opinions strongly. They may argue weakly because they feel their points are “obvious”.
  • Be more common in western cultures like in the US, UK and Australia.

The second are “success-oriented“. They see software development as a relatively well paid and respected stepping stone, usually to management.  They tend to:

  • Prefer familiar tools and techniques, so long as they are well compensated and have promotion opportunities.
  • Think “good” code meets requirements. Other facts are less important.
  • Seek help for problems when there is no immediate, obvious solution.
  • Look to seniority or management for guidance and direction. Indeed, if they are in a senior position, they will often demand the right to design or give direction.
  • Respect and seek “authoritative” measures of achievement such as degrees, certifications and training. The goal is usually to decrease the time to the next promotion, enter the industry at a higher position or be paid more.
  • Hold technical opinions weakly. They may argue strongly because it their training and education emphasized it.
  • Be more common in eastern cultures like in India and China.

Clearly, these groups are not well-defined or mutually exclusive and are generalizations. Craftsmen still want promotions and pay rises. Success-oriented developers may still be interested in technology. They key difference is that the software written by craftsmen is part of their identity so they work to make it as good as they can. They grok languages rather than just learn them.

Craftsmen are not better developers than success-oriented developers and vice versa. For example, craftsman may get distracted by perfectionism or experiments but may drive the organization to newer and (hopefully) better processes. On the other hand, success-oriented developers often use well-understood paths to complete tasks sooner and are happy to maintain older software using older tools.

Success-oriented developers are not more likely to provide business value than craftsmen. Although success-oriented developers are less dismissive of non-technical users and focus more on pleasing management, they commonly implement the requirements verbatim without additional understanding.

Although team composition and work assignment are often the domain of team leaders and management, it benefits everyone in the team to understand others’ motivations. For example, pointing out a better solution to success-oriented developers may frustrate them since their solution is no longer “successful” and requires additional work. Point out the simplicity, time-saving aspects of the new solution or how marketable the new skills required are to motivate or influence success-oriented developers. By comparison, pointing out a better solution to craftsmen may embarrass or make them feel threatened. Point to relevant code, articles or recommendations of industry thought leaders to motivate or influence craftsmen.

Also be aware the type of developer when soliciting feedback. Craftsmen generally give better feedback. Many success-oriented developers are happy to be directed by those more senior or want to direct those they perceive as junior. That said, craftsmen are likely to push newer designs and techniques while success-oriented developers look at things in the context of existing practises.

Moreover, having both developer types working together without self-awareness can create friction, such as when a success-oriented senior developer or manager asserts authority over a craftsman developer pushing what he or she considers a better solution, perhaps backed up by blogs or articles. Outsourcing or mergers/acquisitions often cause or exacerbate this.

The challenge is that developers have weak soft skills and many consider meetings and discussions unproductive time. They rarely focus on interacting with each other, sometimes oblivious to the problems it creates. Unfortunately, developers are not perfectly rational but understanding their motivations can solve common problems or avoid them completely.

(Thanks to Bryan O’Donovan for the helpful review and comments.)

3 responses to “A Clash of Development Cultures

  1. Rohit Pitke October 30, 2012 at 10:08 am

    This is excellent article.I have recently moved from India to US and I used to be much more “success oriented developer”. Without bias, you have scribbled down their pros and cons but in general, craftsman tend to create more polished software. It is difficult to become one but it is worth at the end. Overall, solid article. With your permission, I will like to send the link to some link minded people?

  2. Adam LG Ring October 7, 2015 at 9:33 pm

    Good points and excellent writing. Reminds me of DiSC conflicts.

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