You have just presented your architecture to management. You slaved over every technical detail, followed all the standard templates and convinced all the technical leads. Every “i” is dotted and “t” crossed. Expecting praise for a job well done, the presentation never really engaged with the audience. The R&D manager asked about an off-the-shelf solution instead and the operations and IT managers argued over who would operate the system. Others seemed disinterested. What went wrong?
Software developers, infrastructure engineers and other technical roles reflexively solve problems using their technical expertise. It is their strength and value to the organization. However, it gives them tunnel vision on both the possible solutions and how to present them.
As we scale up architecture to solution or enterprise architecture; the economic, staffing, tooling and political impact increases. Architects are not salespeople and our audience wants us to help solve their problems. However, architecture is not just about presenting technical solutions. It is about persuading stakeholders that the solution presented is the best.
To do so, first understand the true scope of the problem and the solution. In addition to systems and tools (where architects from technical background excel), a business comprises people and process too (where architects from technical backgrounds fare less well). If in doubt, identify and engage those knowledgeable to assist.
This is where different architecture representations excel. While many technical architects focus on application, infrastructure or data architecture, also capture process (e.g. BPMN or flowcharts) and people/functions (e.g. use case diagrams). Use existing repositories, tools or standards if they exist to avoid duplication. Pictures and diagrams are generally more effective than blocks of text. If a new system requires staffing changes, work with the appropriate managers first and avoid open discussion of this until details are finalized.
Second, preempt questions and concerns. The architecture presentation should not be is the first time you learn of a concern. Put yourself in the shoes of stakeholders. Apply analysis not just to the problem but also the audience. Asking stakeholders for advice is almost always received positively.
List the other possible solutions for each key decision and justify the chosen solution, like the TOGAF “Consolidated Gaps, Solutions, and Dependencies Matrix”. Less experienced architects may find it difficult to even articulate each decision because they are instinctively leaping to a sound technical solution and not taking the requisite steps back. The best architects argue against their own architectures to find gaps. Have this list accessible because you never know when you may be ambushed in the corridor.
In this justification, consider looking outside your organization. While you are not writing an academic article with a minimum required number of citations, referencing industry standards and publications can help stakeholders unfamiliar with an area understand this is not new ground.
More experienced architects take an economic view. Architects need not detail exact cost amounts (it will usually be wrong) but the most cost-effective solution may not be the technically best solution.
Another technique is to create different material for each audience, like TOGAF views satisfying viewpoints. Remove some technical detail for non-technical audiences and use the material for the different perspectives described above. While time-consuming; a succinct, relevant case is more persuasive than a longer, less-relevant one.
Third, make your slides or material attractive. If you want people looking at it, it needs to be something pleasant to look at. Consistent formatting, notation and color schemes are all important. Storytelling and similar techniques can also help but should be used sparingly – architects are not salespeople.
Fourth, own problems or areas, not solutions. Senior stakeholders are very good at sensing hidden agendas, like an architect pushing their preferred design. If someone has a point, acknowledge it and, if you need time to think it over, ask for it. Argue strongly but hold opinions weakly.
Lastly, architects need to be thought leaders in their organization by shaping terminology and direction while understanding the technical and business environment they are responsible for. An architect’s goal is to shepherd the business toward a better state than it is now.
Many architects mistake thought leadership for being more technically knowledgeable and skilled than developers or engineers. This can be sustained in the short term but technical subject matter experts (SMEs) will eventually surpass the architect. They devote more time to it – it is their function. It also can bias the architect toward the status quo and technical solutions – something that may dissuade less technical stakeholders.
Instead, architects should learn about as many different perspectives as possible. Architects need to be the team of “know” instead of the team of “no”. Listening is power and understanding peoples’ needs and wants, including technical SMEs, is the first step toward satisfying them. It also builds trust and, ultimately, persuasion is built on trust.
The image is from Pixabay (https://pixabay.com/fr/photos/persuasion-indian-wrestling-567950/) and used under the Pixabay license (https://pixabay.com/fr/service/license/).